Prevalence ofAcute Renal Failure Due toExogenous Nephrotoxins inlIorin

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A Chijioke
A Aderibigbe
TO Olanrewaju
AO Adekoya

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Abstract

A study was carried out to see how many cases of acute renal failure (ARF) due to exogenous nephrotoxins were recorded at the nephrology unit of University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital over a five year (Jan 1998-Dec. 2(02) period. The patients were analyzed with specific reference to age, sex, type of toxins. duration of illness, treatment modalities and prognosis. Thirteen cases (7 males, 6 females) of nephrotoxic ARF were identified out of 118 (11%) ARF cases seen within the period. It ranked 4 to Septicaemia (32%), severe Gastroenteritis (21 %) and acute Glomerulonephritis( 12%) as a cause of ARF in the study. The age range was 19-45 years with a mean of 35 years. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) were the commonest (38%) implicated toxic agent. followed by co-administration of herbal preparations (31 %), while heavy alcohol intake, herbal vaginal pessary insertion and consumption of "holy green water" accounted for 11.02%. Five cases (39%) were complicated by septicaemia of which 3 that benefited from haemodialysis recovered. All patients 000%) that had haemodialysis survived in contrast with 78% of cases managed conservatively. Majority of the patients (85%) were oliguric at presentation and the overall mortality rate was 15%. It is concluded that ARF due to exogenous nephrotoxins is not uncommon in our environment. the toxins are potentially preventable and the prognosis is better with dialysis therapy.

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