Influence of Age and Gender on the prevalence of anaemia in dialysis naïve Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) in Zaria, Nigeria

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Livingstone Gayus Dogara
Abdulaziz Hassan
Sani Awwalu
Lucky Okpetu
Aliyu Dahiru Waziri
Ahmadu Aliyu Babadoko
Istifanus Bala Bosan
Mohammed Haruna Muktar

Keywords

Abstract

Background: Decrease in Glomerular Filtration Rate occurs with advancing age. Average age of diagnosis of   CKD in Nigeria is below 45 years of age and male gender has been shown to be a risk factor for worsening CKD. . The influence of age and gender on prevalence of anaemia in CKD differs across the world, thus this study aims to determine the prevalence of anaemia and to evaluate associations between age, gender and anaemia in patients with CKD.


Method: This was a cross-sectional descriptive study of patients with CKD. Age, gender, primary renal disease, stage of CKD and associated clinical conditions as well as blood samples of study subjects were analyzed for complete blood counts, creatinine, and Ferritin levels.


Results: Mean age of the participants was 45.8±14.6 years with 59.3% diagnosed at or greater than 45 years of age, male-to-female ratio 1:1.2. Mean haemoglobin concentration (Hb) was 11.0±2.8g/dl, red cell indices were normal. Prevalence of anaemia was 61.5%, and it was very common among both genders; 74.7% of males and 62.0% of females.  Mean serum ferritin and RDW-CV were 70.57±46.43ng/ml and 16.29±3.70 % respectively. Chi Square for trend for age at diagnosis and worsening stage of CKD was statistically significant (χ2 = 4.387, df=4, p=0.036). Similarly, a statistically significant trend was observed between the degree of anaemia and stage of CKD (χ2= 11.888, df=4, p=0.001).


Conclusion: There is a high prevalence of anaemia among CKD patients and the burden is relatively higher in the male gender at and or above 45 years of age.

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