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Paraneoplastic syndromes (PNS) are defined as a collection of symptoms and clinical signs occurring in cancer patients and involving systemic effects taking place remotely from the tumor; they are not related either to its local repercussion or distant spread and are not caused by infection, nutritional deficiency or treatment.
A paraneoplastic phenomenon usually arises from (a) biologically active substances (hormones, hormone precursors, or hormone-like substances) aberrantly produced by the underlying neoplasm, (b) modulation of the immune system via autoimmunity, immune complexes production and immune suppression, (c) unknown causes(1).
The prevalence of low grade papillary carcinoma of the bladder in Nigeria is 5.4%(2), while the commonest histologic pattern seen is squamous cell carcinoma(2,3). This is the case of a 65year old woman with features of peripheral neuropathy; however had an underlying bladder cell carcinoma with low grade papillary carcinoma.