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There is increased risk of protein energy malnutrition in children with nephrotic syndrome. Children with nephrotic syndrome are prone to both macro and micronutrient deficiency and are at risk of poor growth, muscle mass depletion and cognitive impairment. There are few works on assessing the nutritional status of children with nephrotic syndrome in Nigeria and sub-Saharan Africa.
Objectives: To assess the nutritional status of children with Nephrotic syndrome attending the nephrology clinic of the Lagos State University Teaching Hospital, Ikeja.
Method: A prospective, case-control study carried out between October 2017 and April 2018.
Results: A total of 61 subjects with nephrotic syndrome were recruited and 27 children were enrolled as controls. The mean age of studied subjects was 80.7±42.2 months and for control 80±46.4 months. The mean weight of the studied subjects and control was 25.13±10.45kg and 26.06±11.25kg respectively. The mean body mass index in all subjects was 17.1±2.6kg/m2 while in control group 16.4±2.23kg/m2. Weight for age (WFA) Z score assessment was done in studied subjects not more than 10 years (120 months). 2 (4.08%) had low weight for age, in 42 (85.7%) the WFA was normal and 5(10.2%) were overweight. All controls had normal weight for age z-score except one overweight. Stunting was seen in 7(11.5%) in subjects and severe stunting in 2 subjects (3.27%). All control cases had normal height for age. There was a positive relationship between the use of steroid and stunting (p= 0.004). Waist to Hip ratio values between the two groups (Cases and controls) showed that the cases were more likely to have a high value compared with the controls (p=0.001).
Conclusion: Children with nephrotic syndrome are indeed prone to growth impairment with associated risk of cardiovascular morbidities. Careful attention to use of simple measurements can promptly identify the at risk and disease modifying treatments can be instituted early.
Keywords: Nephrotic syndrome, stunting, wasting