Main Article Content
Background: Bladder cancer is the second most common cancer of the genitourinary tract and the ninth most common cancer worldwide. It accounts for 7% of new cancer cases in men and 2% of new cancer cases in women. There are varied reports locally regarding the most common histological type of bladder cancer in Nigeria.
Aim: The aim of the study was to review the pattern of presentation and histological types of bladder tumours at the Lagos State University Teaching Hospital Ikeja.
Patients and Method: This was a retrospective study in which the clinical records of all patients who presented with bladder tumours to the Lagos State University Teaching Hospital Ikeja over a 5 year period (January 2013 to December 2017) were retrieved and analyzed.
Results: The records of 32 patients were available for review. There were 19 (59.4%) males and 13 (40.6%) females, reflecting a male preponderance. All the patients had a cystoscopy and biopsy of bladder mass done under conscious sedation. The mean age was 56.75 ± 3.16 years and the median age was 59.50 years (range 14 – 84 years). The most common presenting symptom was haematuria in 29 patients (90.6%). Other presenting symptoms were irritative lower urinary tract symptoms in 27 patients (84.4%), necroturia in 7 patients (21.9%), back pain in 8 patients (25%) and weight loss in 13 patients (40.6%) at initial presentation. Most of the patients (n=25, 78.1%) had an abdominopelvic ultrasound done, out of which 20 patients (80%) had a demonstrable mass. A CT Scan was also done in 23 patients (71.9%). Possible risk factors identified were wading in streams in 4 patients (12.5%), cigarette smoking in 3 patients (9.4%) and exposure to petrochemicals in 1 patient (3.1%). Associated comorbidities documented were hypertension in 12 patients (37.5%) and diabetes mellitus in 3 patients (9.4%). The most common histological type of bladder tumour was papillary urothelial carcinoma in 23 patients (71.8%), with about half of these (n=12, 52.2 %) being high grade tumours.
Conclusion: Papillary urothelial carcinoma is the most common histological type of bladder cancer presenting at the Lagos State University Teaching Hospital Ikeja with more males being diagnosed than females.
Keywords: bladder cancer, urothelial carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma