Prevalence of Traditional Risk Factors of Chronic Kidney Disease in an Agrarian Community in Edo State, Nigeria: Report of a Health Screening Survey

Main Article Content

Dr Oghenekaro Godwin Egbi
Dr Sulaiman Dazumi Ahmed

Keywords

Abstract

Introduction: Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) is a
public health threat with negative impact on affected
individuals, families and communities worldwide
because of the prohibitive cost of care especially in
those with endstage renal disease (ESRD). It is more
cost-effective to identify risk factors of CKD with a
view to mitigating them than to treat ESRD. The aim
of the study was to determine the prevalence of risk
factors of CKD in a semi-urban agrarian community
in Edo State.
Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional
study of adults who partook in a health screening
exercise done in South Ibie Kingdom, an agrarian
community in Edo State, Nigeria between February
to May 2015 A structured interviewer- administered
questionnaire was used to obtain data from
respondents. History, clinical examination (including
blood pressure and anthropometric measurement) and
collection of urine sample for urinalysis, as well as
blood for glucose and creatinine was undertaken.
Data was analyzed with IBM SPSS statistics version
20.0.
Results: One hundred and sixty three respondents
(70 males, 93 females) completed the study. The
males were older with a mean age of 52.1 + 18 yrs
compared with 45.1 + 17.3 yrs for females (p= 0.02).
Thirty three (20.2%) had a previous diagnosis of
hypertension, 6.1 % diabetes, DM and 1.2 % kidney
disease. A family history of hypertension, DM and
Tropical Journal of Nephrology Vol.15 No. 1, June, 2020 33 - 42
Prevalence of Traditional Risk Factors of Chronic Kidney Disease
in an Agrarian Community in Edo State, Nigeria:
Report of a Health Screening Survey
1Oghenekaro Godwin Egbi and 2Sulaiman Dazumi Ahmed
1Department of Internal Medicine, Niger Delta University Teaching Hospital, Bayelsa State, Nigeria
2Department of Internal Medicine, Irrua Specialist Teaching Hospital, Edo State, Nigeria
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kidney disease was found in 16.0%, 11.7% and 1.8%
respectively. There was no difference in the
proportion of these risk factors between males and
females except for proteinuria which was more in
females(p >0.05). The prevalence of elevated blood
pressure, hyperglycemia and generalized obesity
were 24.5%, 2.5% and 35.0% respectively. While
19.6% had proteinuria, 2.7% had hematuria. Thirty
(18.4 %) participants had eGFR <90 mls/min. eGFR
was significantly negatively correlated with age (p
<0.001), BMI (p = 0.029), SBP (p <0.001) and DBP.
(p <0.001).
Conclusion: The prevalence of risk factors for CKD
was high. To help reduce the scourge of CKD, there
is need for regular screening of communities at the
primary level for these risk factors followed by prompt
intervention.

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