Background: Chronic kidney disease is a common disease with a rising incidence, driven mainly by ageing, increased survival from cancers and major cardiovascular accidents. It is associated with numerous complications, one of which is dyslipidemia; a traditional risk factor associated with increased cardiovascular risk. The spectrum of dyslipidemia in patients with chronic kidney disease is distinct from that in the general population. This hospital based cross sectional case study was aimed at determining the pattern of dyslipidemia among chronic kidney disease patients and comparing the patterns in dialysing and dialysis naïve patients.
Methods: One hundred and sixty patients were recruited for this study between July 2012 and May 2013. They all had their renal function assessed using serum creatinine in the Cockcroft-Gault formula. They also had their lipid components assessed. Dyslipidaemia was defined using the National Cholesterol Education Program/Adult Treatment Panel III criteria.
Result: A hundred and sixty CKD patients participated, 113 (70.6%) were dialysing patients and 47 (29.4%) dialysis naive. The commonest dyslipidemia encountered was a reduction in High Density Lipoprotein –Cholesterol in 117 (73.1%) of cases. The commonest patterns of dyslipidemia were HDL-C/ Triglyceride combination, HDL-C alone and a combination of all 4 components (total cholesterol /HDL-C / LDL-C / triglyceride) with prevalences of 33.1 %, 23.8% and 13.2% respectively. Dyslipidemia was present in 109 (96.3%) of dialyzing patients as against 42 (89.4%) in non-dialyzing patients, however this was of no statistical significance (p = 0.867)
Conclusion: A reduction in HDL- Cholesterol is the commonest dyslipidemia in CKD even as early as CKD stage 1 and the commonest pattern is HDL-C/ Triglyceride combination. There is no significant difference in dyslipidemic patterns in dialysing and dialysis naïve patients.
Key words: Chronic kidney disease, pattern, Dyslipidemia, Dialysis.
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