Tropical Journal of Nephrology 2019-02-10T20:51:33+00:00 Dr. Jacob OLugbenga Awobusuyi Open Journal Systems <p>Tropical Journal of Nephrology is the official Journal of the Nigerian Association of Nephrology which aims at providing a medium for the exchange of ideas and promotion&nbsp;of knowledge of nephrology in the tropics through the publication of research works, innovative clinical experiences, authoritative review articles on topical issues.</p> Editorial 2019-02-10T20:17:43+00:00 admin admin ##submission.copyrightStatement## A CRITICAL APPRAISAL OF THE USE INDUCTION AGENTS IN LOW RISK KIDNEY TRANSPLANT RECIPIENTS – A NIGERIAN PERSPECTIVE 2019-02-10T20:17:43+00:00 Olufunmilade Akinfolarin Omisanjo Jacob Olugbenga Awobusuyi <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Abstract </strong></p> <p>Kidney transplant is now generally accepted as the treatment of choice for patients with end-stage renal disease. This is because of its association with improved survival and quality of life when compared with other forms of renal replacement therapy. Immunosuppression including induction has played a strong role over the years in improving the outcomes of renal transplant.</p> <p>The main aim of transplant immunosuppression is renal allograft survival in the long term and the patient survival while at the same time reducing the risk of known attendant complications of immunosuppression such as malignancies and infection.</p> <p>The use of induction immunosuppression in low risk kidney transplant recipients varies with different transplant programmes. Different studies in different environments have varying conclusions. While some argue for the use of antibodies as part of induction immunosuppression protocol, the prohibitive cost of these agents preclude their regular use in resource poor environments. There is also the argument about the cost benefit of the use of such expensive medications in recipients with low immunological risk in poor environments.</p> <p>This review article critically reappraises the use of induction agents in low risk kidney transplant recipients in Nigeria</p> 2019-02-04T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Nutritional assessment of children with nephrotic syndrome in a tertiary institution: A case controlled study 2019-02-10T20:17:45+00:00 Adaobi U Solarin Motunrayo O Adekunle Olanike A Olutekunbi Omolala M Lamina Oluwatosin E Aremu Adeola B Animasahun Fidelis O Njokanma <p>There is increased risk of protein energy malnutrition in children with nephrotic syndrome. Children with nephrotic syndrome are prone to both macro and micronutrient deficiency and are at risk of poor growth, muscle mass depletion and cognitive impairment. There are few works on assessing the nutritional status of children with nephrotic syndrome in Nigeria and sub-Saharan Africa.</p> <p>Objectives: To assess the nutritional status of children with Nephrotic syndrome attending the nephrology clinic of the Lagos State University Teaching Hospital, Ikeja.</p> <p>Method: A prospective, case-control study carried out between October 2017 and April 2018.</p> <p>Results: A total of 61 subjects with nephrotic syndrome were recruited and 27 children were enrolled as controls. The mean age of studied subjects was 80.7±42.2 months and for control 80±46.4 months. The mean weight of the studied subjects and control was 25.13±10.45kg and 26.06±11.25kg respectively. The mean body mass index in all subjects was 17.1±2.6kg/m<sup>2</sup> while in control group 16.4±2.23kg/m<sup>2</sup>. Weight for age (WFA) Z score assessment was done in studied subjects not more than 10 years (120 months). 2 (4.08%) had low weight for age, in 42 (85.7%) the WFA was normal and 5(10.2%) were overweight. All controls had normal weight for age z-score except one overweight. Stunting was seen in 7(11.5%) in subjects and severe stunting in 2 subjects (3.27%). All control cases had normal height for age. There was a positive relationship between the use of steroid and stunting (p= 0.004). Waist to Hip ratio values between the two groups (Cases and controls) showed that the cases were more likely to have a high value compared with the controls (p=0.001).</p> <p>Conclusion: Children with nephrotic syndrome are indeed prone to growth impairment with associated risk of cardiovascular morbidities. Careful attention to use of simple measurements can promptly identify the at risk and disease modifying treatments can be instituted early.</p> <p>Keywords: Nephrotic syndrome, stunting, wasting</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2019-02-04T12:41:27+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Influence of Age and Gender on the prevalence of anaemia in dialysis naïve Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) in Zaria, Nigeria 2019-02-10T20:40:06+00:00 Livingstone Gayus Dogara Abdulaziz Hassan Sani Awwalu Lucky Okpetu Aliyu Dahiru Waziri Ahmadu Aliyu Babadoko Istifanus Bala Bosan Mohammed Haruna Muktar <p><strong>Background: </strong>Decrease in Glomerular Filtration Rate occurs with advancing age. Average age of diagnosis of&nbsp;&nbsp; CKD in Nigeria is below 45 years of age and male gender has been shown to be a risk factor for worsening CKD. . The influence of age and gender on prevalence of anaemia in CKD differs across the world, thus this study aims to determine the prevalence of anaemia and to evaluate associations between age, gender and anaemia in patients with CKD.</p> <p><strong>Method: </strong>This was a cross-sectional descriptive study of patients with CKD. Age, gender, primary renal disease, stage of CKD and associated clinical conditions as well as blood samples of study subjects were analyzed for complete blood counts, creatinine, and Ferritin levels.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Mean age of the participants was 45.8±14.6 years with 59.3% diagnosed at or greater than 45 years of age, male-to-female ratio 1:1.2. Mean haemoglobin concentration (Hb) was 11.0±2.8g/dl, red cell indices were normal. Prevalence of anaemia was 61.5%, and it was very common among both genders; 74.7% of males and 62.0% of females.&nbsp; Mean serum ferritin and RDW-CV were 70.57±46.43ng/ml and 16.29±3.70 % respectively. Chi Square for trend for age at diagnosis and worsening stage of CKD was statistically significant (χ<sup>2 </sup>= 4.387, df=4, p=0.036). Similarly, a statistically significant trend was observed between the degree of anaemia and stage of CKD (χ<sup>2</sup>= 11.888, df=4, p=0.001).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>There is a high prevalence of anaemia among CKD patients and the burden is relatively higher in the male gender at and or above 45 years of age.</p> 2019-02-04T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Burden and Risk factors of Kidney Injury in North-Central, Nigeria: A Cross-sectional Survey 2019-02-10T20:17:49+00:00 CO Oladele OA Bello OF Olaosebikan G Ahmed AA Goro R Dashe SA Ajimuda YA Olurode AH Bello OS Aiyedun <p>None</p> 2019-02-04T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Obstructive uropathy secondary to extrapulmonary tuberculosis 2019-02-10T20:17:49+00:00 OLUWASEYE MICHAEL OLADIMEJI OLUWASEUN AKINOLA RACHAEL ADEYANJU AKINOLA JACOB OLUGBENGA AWOBUSUYI <p>Renal tuberculosis is an uncommon manifestation of extrapulmonary tuberculosis, due to its insidious onset and non-specific constitutional symptoms, which makes it difficult to make proper diagnosis[1]. If renal tuberculosis is not treated early, it can disseminate into the genitourinary system resulting into ureteric obstruction, hydronephrosis or pyonephrosis[2]. This is the case of a 31 year old lady with obstructive uropathy from extrapulmonary tuberculosis.</p> 2019-02-04T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Paraneoplastic manifestation of bladder cell carcinoma 2019-02-10T20:17:49+00:00 Seye Oladimeji OLUWASEYE MICHAEL OLADIMEJI BABAWALE ARABAMBI ALABA FREDRICK DOHERTY JACOB OLUGBENGA AWOBUSUYI <p>Paraneoplastic syndromes (PNS) are defined as a collection of symptoms and clinical signs occurring in cancer patients and involving systemic effects taking place remotely from the tumor; they are not related either to its local repercussion or distant spread and are not caused by infection, nutritional deficiency or treatment.</p> <p>A paraneoplastic phenomenon usually arises from (a) biologically active substances (hormones, hormone precursors, or hormone-like substances) aberrantly produced by the underlying neoplasm, (b) modulation of the immune system via autoimmunity, immune complexes production and immune suppression, (c) unknown causes(1).</p> <p>The prevalence of low grade papillary carcinoma of the bladder in Nigeria is 5.4%(2), while the commonest histologic pattern seen is squamous cell carcinoma(2,3). This is the case of a 65year old woman with features of peripheral neuropathy; however had an underlying bladder cell carcinoma with low grade papillary carcinoma.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2019-02-04T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## World Kidney Day 2019 2019-02-10T20:51:33+00:00 admin admin <p>None</p> 2019-02-04T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##